General Electric
Tech's Filing Cabinet Miscellaneous General Electric RCA Tube Tech Semi Tech Audio Radio Components

The GE "Technical Information Series" of reports were curated by General Electric's Corporate Research and Development group in Schenectady, New York (the home base of GE). These reports were written by the various departments of GE and were distributed widely throughout the company. As mentioned in the Confidentiality link to the left, there were four levels of security, with only Level 1 being open to the public. Also included here are numbered "Technical Information Reports" which were more informally distributed. All reports here are listed in chronological order.

The reports listed here are only a small fraction of those in the Von Campbell collection. More will be added as they are scanned.

Knoerzer 1951 Removing Sticking Potential by Hot Tungsten Wire 51E655 - A translation of a German article on how a glowing tungsten wire can remove the "sticking potential" of a fluorescent screen. Sketchy English and some of the original drawings seem to be missing.

Williams 1953 Advances in Solid-State Luminescence RL805 - A summary of the various kinds of electroluminescence including phosphors and the interesting case of transparent phosphors.

Aldrich 1953 On the Conversion of Spectral Energy Curves to a Relative Energy Basis 53E660 - Abstract: "A method is described for converting spectral energy distribution curves to a relative energy basis which depends only upon the basic assumptions of the ICI system of color representation and a single experimental measurement of tube brightness. The method is useful for graphical comparison of phosphor efficiencies, and, in a modified form, for prediction of the color of phosphor blends from color data on the components alone. It is expected that with certain refinements of experimental technique it can be used to calculate the phosphor composition needed to hold production color to very close tolerances, thereby eliminating the presently used, costly "cut-and-try" procedures for adjusting color."

McLeland 1954 Pulse Aging of Oxide-Coated Cathodes 54E652 - Activating a CRT cathode by conventional DC method takes 45 minutes. By applying high-intensity pulses, this is shortened to only a few minutes. Unknown whether this was adopted.

Zemany & Young 1954 Gassy Nickel Clad Ba Getter C-54-90 - Abstract: "Relatively large amounts of gas are produced from a nickel clad Ba getter while being heated before flashing, hence the degassing of getters is a necessary step. After the getter is flashed, CH4 and N2 are produced. These are gases which are adsorbed slowly and with low efficiency by the getter, and may even sometimes remain in the device the getters are intended to keep at low pressure."

Devlin 1955 CRT Cathode Temperature Measurements DF55ETC8 - Uncertainty of picture tube cathode temeperature prompted experiments where a tiny thermocouple was welded to cathodes and tested. It turned out that GE and Sylvania cathodes were running too hot by 25 to 50°C.

Santeler & Norton 1955 A Graphical Approach to Vacuum Engineering R55GL332 - Using an elaborate nomograph, vacuum system behavior can be determined, both in the static and transient cases. Two versions of the nomograph: Graph I for System Design and Graph II for Leak Analysis.

Bondley & Knoll 1956 A Cement for Use in Vacuum Devices 56RL1526 - A cement to be used in vacuum environments, such as vacuum tubes.

Gaynor 1956 Coating by the Fluidized Bed Technique R56GL204 - "A review of the patent literature on coatings via powdered solids is presented. In addition, the results of an experimental program, not yet complete, to apply polymer, glass, ceramic, and metal coatings to a variety of substrates, via a fluidized bed."

Whetten & Laponsky 1956 Backscattered Electrons in the PA Color TV Tube 56RL1644 - The GE Research Laboratory finds a way to reduce backscattered electrons, which would improve the (never-released) Post-Acceleration color TV tube. Take a look at the distribution list (in the back). This minor research report on a in-house experimental color TV tube was distributed to every damn part of General Electric, from the "Large Steam Turbine-Generator Department" to the "Vacuum Cleaner Department". I guess these researchers really needed to show their worth.

Lafferty 1956 Ceramic-Metal Ionization Gages 56RL1655 - Several ceramic-metal ion gauges: one compatible with the standard VG-1A plus several magnetron types. These gauges can be baked-out to 700°C and they can measure down to 5 x 10-13 mm Hg.

Griessel 1957 Applications of the Mass Spectrometer to Tube Development 57ETI-1 - Using a mass spectrometer to analyze vacuum impurities. This is much easier and cheaper to do today.

Fisher-Colbrie 1957 Photoconductors and Electroluminescent Materials for Display and Similar Devices R57ELS1 - Photoconductors and electroluminescent devices used to implement displays, particularly as light amplifiers.

Santeler 1957 Preliminary Vacuum Outgassing Study for CRTs 57GL211 - A new system of analyzing a vacuum system by running computer calculations based on the vacuum system geometry and pump speeds (not described here) was used to evaluate the exhaust behavior of CRTs. There are twenty graphs showing the vacuum and gas flows for various pump-down situations. Interesting.

Carini 1957 Surface Chemistry of Adhesion, Abhesion and Lubrication 57GL245 - The chemistry of adhesion, abhesion, and lubrication. Annotated bibliography included.

Mayer 1957 Cathode Ray Tube European Technical Survey R57-ETC-3 - A detailed European trip report covering CRT technology. Note the openness of the hosts to the GE personnel, only a few of which had official "agreements" with GE.

Findeisen 1958 Numerical methods in Cathode Ray Tube Analysis R-58ETC-1 - Using finite-element analysis to design electron guns. This was using an IBM 650 computer!

Coppola 1958 The Application of a Limiting Aperture to Cathode Spraying R58ETC-2 - The use of a limiting aperture to ensure only the center of a cathode spray gets deposited, leading to a smoother cathode. Full manufacturing drawings are provided.

Santeler 1958 Vacuum Process Evaluation 58GL146 - Using a computer program to determine and analyze outgassing in a vacuum system. Uses techniques described in R55GL332 and 57GL211.

Hsu 1958 Multiple Frequency Parametric Devices R58ELS-84 - Parametric amplifiers of two types: a regenerative up-converter, and and upper sideband amplifier.

Coppola 1959 Relationship of Cathode Life to Cathode Temperature in CRTs - Experimental tests to determine best cathode temperature for longest life in consumer picture tubes. 750° to 800° C is best.

Good 1959 A TV Simulation of the Land Two-Color System - Experimental verification of Dr. Land's (founder of Polaroid) two-color reproduction system. This system fools our eyes into seeing more colors. Mixed results. This research was part of the beginning of the Talaria project.

Russel 1960 R-60ETR-1 Emittance of Tube Materials - Measurements of the total IR emittance of various materials used in vacuum tubes, including "converted aluminum-clad iron". Good stuff here.

Coppola 196- Cathode Life in CRTs - Experiments to show the relationship between cathode temperature and gas to cathode lifetime. The results are as expected: Don't run the cathode too hot, and gas is bad.

Norton 1961 Gas Permeation Through the Vacuum Envelope 61RL2874C - From abstract: "The relationship and available values for permeation rate, diffusion constant, and solubility of various gases and solids are discussed. Values are given for walls of glass and metal in differing external environments. Some generalizations can be formulated."

Cobine & Farrall 1961 Recovery Characteristics of Vacuum Arcs 61RL2931G - Experiments to evaluate the recovery time of a vacuum interrupter with different contact materials.

Cusano 1962 Special Phosphor Screens for Image Tubes 62RL2933G - Improved sensitivity for phosphors in image-intensifier tubes.

Gleichauf & Pua 1962 Magnetic Limiting Apertures for Electron Guns R62ELS94 - By using a small ring magnet in the electron gun, a resolution of 100 lines per mm can be achieved.

Juhlin 1962 Computer Program for Lenticular Lens Coordinates 176 - Computer program to aid electron lens design. It ran on an IBM 1620, running an early version of Fortran.

Peters 1962 Reactive Metal Vacuum Pumping R62APS57 - "The operation of a novel pump for producing ultra-clean and high vacuum in the 10-8 to 10-7 torr region is described. Pumping processes include gas-metal diffusion and chemical gettering, with heat as the main source of input energy. Four models of different design were constructed, one of which is particularly suited for use with an electrostatic gyro. ... The general application of this type of pump and its use in vacuum systems utilizing no mechanical or cryo-forepumping are outlined."

Cocca & Stauffer 1963 The Plasma Electron Beam Source and its Application to Vacuum Metallurgy 63RL3380 - A 30kw plasma beam that can be used for welding, melting, sintering, etc.

Read & Glascock 1965 Diffusion-Sorption Pumping 65RL4009E - "An extremely clean evacuation technique is described that utilizes the selective diffusion of a gas through a thin membrane combined with the persorption of gases by a chilled sorbant. Pressures lower than 1 x 10-8 torr have been achieved in a small system using the diffusion of H through Pd-25% Ag plus sorption pumping by liquid nitrogen-chilled synthetic zeolite. The technique is especially suitable for the pre-evacuation of getter-ion pumped ultrahigh vacuum systems.

Vermilyea & Ochar 1969 Passivation of Aluminuim 69C041 - An improved aluminum passivation technique.

Sharbaugh 1970 Progress in the Field of Electric Breakdown in Dielectric Liquids 70-C-191 - Summary of the state of the art in the physics in electrical breakdown in liquids.

Farrall 1970 Arc Extinction Phenomena in Vacuum I Modes of Arc Extinction 70C223 - Experiments showing that a resistive load leads to excessive vacuum arc extinction time in AC breaker circuits.

Rairden 1970 Thin Film Resistors of the Tantalum-Rhenium System 70C237 - Rhenium and Tantalum have nearly identical vapor pressures. This allows a choice in their ratio to make low TCR film resistors for hybrid circuits.

Martin & Benz 1970 Magnetic Properties of Cobalt-Rare Earth Magnets for Microwave Applications 70C317 - Summary of the properties of cobalt-samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, and cerium magnets - the first rare-earth magnets.

Benz & Martin 1970 Measurement of Magnetic Properties of Cobalt-Rare Earth Permanent Magnets 70C318 - Using a super-conducting magnet to analyze the high-performance colbalt-rare earth magnets.

Interrante & Browall 1971 A New Electrical Humidity Sensor 71C203 - An improved humidity sensor.

Mathes 1971 Performance of Simple Insulator Shapes Under Heavily Contaminated Conditions 71C051 - Experiments on simple insulator geometries in a damp, contaminated environment, with comparisons to conventional porcelain suspension insulators.

Farrall 1971 Arc Extinction Phenomenna in Vacuum II Dependence on Circuit Parameters 71C133 - Experiments on voltage breakdown in a vacuum with copper electrodes, with varying circuit parameters.

Farrall & Johnston 1971 Study of Electrode Surfaces Arced in Vacuum 71C134 - Experiments to analyze the cause and effects of high-current arcing in a vacuum on the electrodes.

Farrall & Owens 1971 Techniques for the Study of Breakdown Between Large Area Electrodes in Vacuum 71C224 - Experimental method for examining the points of field emission which lead to high voltage breakdown in vacuum.

Thornton & Catherino 1971 A Comparison of Commercially Available Primary Battery Systems 71C247 - From summary: "To compare energy densities and operating characteristics of small commercially available primary batteries, data from several battery manufacturers have been surveyed. This compilation has been restricted to cells with aqueous electrolytes. Data for representative cell sizes have been tabulated for Leclanché, Alkaline MnO2-Zn, HgO-Zn, HgO-Cd, Monovalent AgO-Zn, Divalent AgO-Zn, MnO2-Mg, Zn-Air batteries."

Farrall 1972 A Review of Vacuum Breakdown Phenomena 72CRD186 - A history and then a summary of the state of the art of voltage breakdown in a vacuum.

Glascock Jr 1972 Glass Envelope UV-Sensitive Flame Detectors 72CRD201 - Flame sensors based on UV-photodetive sensors, with the effect of H2 added to He in the sensor.

Farrall 1972 Breakdown Phenomena of Surfaces in Vacuum Subjected to Arcing 72CRD242 - The effects of breakdown in in a vacuum on electrodes - both static and dynamic.

McKee 1972 Carbon and Graphite Science 72CRD319 - A summary of the properties of carbon fibers, "glass-like carbon", and other allotropes of carbon.

Stamets 1974 Chemical Cleaning of Tungsten and Molybdenum 74RMP310 - "The chemistry of Tungsten, molybdenum and their oxides are discussed relative to their attack by common reagents in the form of fused salts or aqueous solutions. These are systems which can be used for cleaning and surface preparation during thermo-mechanical processing of the metals or prior to final assembly of parts. Relative attack times are given. Utility of several systems are compared, including environmental considerations."

GE Burgess et al 1975 The Direct Bonding of Metals to Ceramics and Applications in Electronics 75CRD105 - The use of a slightly oxidizing atmosphere to allow a eutectic bonding of copper foil to ceramics. This is is crucial to devices such as hybrid electronics packaging.

Levinson & Philipp 1975 A-C Properties of Metal Oxide Varistors 75CRD175 - The electrical properties of a MOV surge suppressor when it isn't suppressing.

Comly et al 1975 Heat Pumps-Limitations and Potential 75CRD185 - An analysis of heat pumps for residential heating and cooling. Radiant solar collectors makes them even better.

Weininger & Siwek 1976 A System Evaluation of Lead-Acid Battery Chargers 76CRD096 - Three lead-acid charge control methods are evaluated. The system that uses evolved gasses for charge control is the most efficient and reduces damage to the battery.

Wentorf Jr 1976 On the Formation of Dioxygen from Water 76CRD227 - Eleven different methods of generating dioxygen (O2), from electrolysis to photosynthesis.

Wentorf Jr 1977 Formation and Consumption Rates of Major Energy Sources 77CRD005 - A prescient review of global energy sources, their limitations, and the threat to oceans and climate. Renewable energy sources are recommended. Quite interesting.

Martzloff 1977 Transient Control Level Test Generators 77CRD241 - A high-voltage pulse generator to simulate in-home transients for testing appliances and GCFIs. Based on the common failures of modern electronic-based appliances, this testing didn't work out very well.

Funkenbusch et al 1978 The Influence of Microstructure on Fracture of Drawn Tungsten Wire - A detailed look at the effects of annealing on the microstructure of tungsten wire.

Miller & Furno 1978 The Effect of Mn-Ti Surface Treatment on Voltage Holdoff Performance of Alumina Insulators in Vacuum 78NDD002 - Improving the voltage holdoff of alumina insulation, by the obscure Neutron Devices Department. To see where this is used, look at the distribution list (last page).

Zarnoch & Herrick 1978 Latent Heat Storage in a 55 Gallon Rolling Cylinder 78CRD175 - A heat storage device using Glauber's Salt (sodium sulfate decahydrate) in a rotating 55-gallon drum.

Mahan et al 1978 Theory of Conduction in ZnO Varistors 78CRD205 - "A theory is presented which quantitatively accounts for the important features of conduction in ZnO-based metal oxide varisitors." Quantum electron tunneling is involved.

Hogan et al 1978 TC 300 Solar Collector 78SDS016 - 33Mb. A vacuum tube solar collector based on the TC-100 collector (not described here) that operates between 350°F and 500°F with a daily collection efficiency of 40%. Analysis and detailed mechanical descriptions.

Herrick & Zarnoch 1980 Corrosion Measurements on Materials of Construction for a Rolling Cylinder Latent Heat Store Using Glaubers Salt 80CRD248 - Exploration of materials to be used in the rolling drum latent heat storage system described above (see 78CRD175).

Stein 1980 Design Rules for Artwork for Liquid Crystal Displays 79CRD236 - The title says it all. Probably obsolete.

Hopkins 1980 Protective Level Comparisons of Voltage Transient Suppressors 120V AC Type 79CRD223 - A comparison of transient suppressor devices.

Hall 1981 Silicon Photovoltaic Cells 80CRD274 - The state of the art of silicon solar cells in 1980. Detailed descriptions of the physics of these cells. Still applicable today.

Liebhafsky 1981 Energy Conversion Anyone & The Story of Mercury-Steam 81CRD281 - Two chapters of a history of power generation. Note that page 29 was a blank in the original.

Brown Jr et al 1981 Chemical Destruction of PCBs in Transformer Oil 81CRD257 - An analysis of using sodium to remove trace amounts of PCBs in conventional transformer oil.

Browall 1981 Electrochemical Energy Storage and Conversion 81CRD258 - Descriptions of two electrochemical storage systems being developed by GE: the Beta Battery and the Carbonate Fuel Cell.