RCA App Notes
Tech's Filing Cabinet Miscellaneous General Electric RCA Tube Tech Semi Tech Audio Radio Components

Application Notes target the design engineer with ideas and assistance in designing-in RCA products. Distributed to the general public. These come from the Harold Ulmer (2018), Kenneth Fletcher (5-19), Ludwell Sibley (6-19), and Bill Courtright (7-19) collections.

RCA 1941 List of Application Notes 1933-1941 - From one of the RCA "Blue Books", a list of all the Application Notes from #1 to #117. Lots of really good stuff from this era.

RCA 1933 AN-5 Application of the 79 Tube - A push-pull class B amplifier for automobile radios.

RCA 1933 AN-14 Operating Conditions for the Type 53 - The high-mu twin triode type 53 can get ten watts in zero-bias class B operation. Except for 6.3 Volt heaters, the 6A6 and 6N7 are equivalent to the 53.

RCA 1933 AN-18 Operation Conditions for the Type 19 Tube - The type 19 is a zero-bias class B output tube for battery operation - up to 2.5 Watts output with a 135 Volt plate supply.

RCA 1933 AN-25 Influence of Circuit Constants on Receiver Output Noise - Summary of the causes of receiver noise and techniques for minimizing it.

RCA 1933 AN-29 Design of Audio Systems Employing Type 2A3 Power Amplifier Triodes - Circuits for push-pull 2A3 amplifiers using fixed, semi-fixed, and cathode bias. Performance curves and transformer winding data included.

RCA 1934 AN-30 The Characteristics of the 6F7 Tube - The 6F7 was the first American pentode-triode combination tube. The triode and pentode shared a cathode, but this usually wasn't a problem. All permutations of circuits are described here.

RCA 1934 AN-32 Revision of Characteristics for the Type 48 - Updated specs for the type 48 audio tetrode. This was one of the first audio output tubes designed to run on the low plate voltages found in AC/DC radios.

RCA 1934 AN-33 The RCA-800 in Class B Audio Amplifiers - Using transmitting triodes in class B to get over 100 watts. Don't get too excited about the transformer winding specs - the frequency response is lousy.

RCA 1934 AN-34 Characteristics of the 868 Phototube - Application information for the 868 phototube. This type contains a trace of argon to "amplify" the signal. A typical use would be in the sound section of movie projectors.

RCA 1934 AN-35 Triode Operation of Type 42 and Type 2A5 Pentodes - Application of the types 42 and 2A5 pentodes in triode connection, both single-ended and push-pull. The 6F6 is equivalent to the 42.

RCA 1934 AN-36 Lissajou's Figures - Lissajou's figures are produced when one sine wave is applied to the horizontal input and another to the vertical input of an oscilloscope. The ratio of the two frequencies can be determined. This was important in the days before frequency counters.

RCA 1934 AN-37 100-Volt Operation of 6C6 and 6D6 Tubes - Operation of these RF/AF amplifier pentodes with a 100 volt plate supply, such as would be found in an AC/DC radio. The 6J7 and 6K7 are similar in characteristics to the 6C6 and 6D6, respectively.

RCA 1934 AN-38 A Simple Method for Converting Pentode Characteristics - A technique to find the operating condition for power pentodes at different operating voltages than given in the published specs.

RCA 1934 AN-39 The Design of a Voltage Supply for the 905 and 906 CRTs - Circuits to supply either 1000 or 2000 volts to run the type 906 or 905 cathode ray tubes.

RCA 1934 AN-40 High Power Output from Type 45 Tubes - Running a pair of 45 tubes push-pull in class A, class AB, and class B to get as much as 19 watts output.

RCA 1934 AN-41 The 1C6 - The 1C6 is a higher performance pentagrid converter than the earlier 1A6 converter. This makes it more usable in portable short wave radios.

RCA 1934 AN-42 Short-Cut Method for Determining Operating Conditions of Power Output Triodes - Equations and a graphical method for determining the operating conditions for triode power amplifiers in both single-ended and push-pull. A special celluloid ruler (scanned here) is included to determine the output at 5% distortion graphically.

RCA 1934 AN-43 Cathode-Ray Curve-Tracing Apparatus for Aligning Tuned Circuits - a primitive kind of spectrum analyzer covering the intermediate frequencies of 100 to 500 kc. The frequency sweep uses a synchronous motor spinning a variable capacitor.

RCA 1934 AN-44 Operating Conditions for the 6A6 - The 6A6 is a zero-bias double triode used in class B amplifiers, putting out up to 14 watts. The 6N7 has the same characteristics as the 6A6.

RCA 1935 AN-45 The Use of the 57 or 6C6 to Obtain Negative Transconductance and Resistance - Using these sharp-cutoff pentodes in a negative resistance mode: The input signal goes to grid #3 and grid #2 acts as the plate. Simple oscillators can be made from this arrangement. The 6J7 is similar to the 6C6.

RCA 1935 AN-46 The Design of Six-Volt Battery-Operated Receivers - Using 2 volt battery tubes connected in series/parallel so they can run off of a 6-volt storage battery.

RCA 1935 AN-47 The Use of the 954 as a Vacuum-Tube Voltmeter - Using an acorn pentode as an infinite impedance VTVM probe.

RCA 1935 AN-48 Graphical Determination of the Decrease in Inductance Produced by a Coil Shield - A graph that shows how much inductance is lost when a coil is inside a metal shield.

RCA 1935 AN-49 The Construction of a Top-Cap Shield for Metal Tubes - A drawing of the little metal shielding cap seen on metal tubes.

RCA 1935 AN-50 Operation of the 6L7 as a Mixer Tube - The 6L7 was designed as a pentagrid mixer - an external oscillator is required. Its superiority is due to the "outer-grid" oscillator injection.

RCA 1935 AN-51 The 6F5 - Application of the 6F5 high-mu triode, including a connection for lower distortion after a diode detector. Note the excellent linearity (mu vs Ip).

RCA 1935 AN-52 Class AB Operation of Type 6F6 Tubes Connected as Triodes - Push-pull triode-connected 6F6s run in class AB2. Circuits and performance curves are given. Up to 18.8 Watts achieved.

RCA 1935 AN-53 6L7 as a Volume Expander for Phonographs - A simple volume-expander to be used with phonographs.

RCA 1935 AN-54 Class AB of Type 6F6 Tubes Connected as Pentodes - Push-pull pentode-connected 6F6s run in class AB2. Circuits and performance curves are given. Up to 18.5 Watts achieved. Interesting to compare with triode mode (AN-52) with nearly the same results.

RCA 1936 AN-55 Operation of the 6A8 - Design subtleties when using the 6A8 pentagrid converter tube. Includes notes on alignment.

RCA 1936 AN-56 Receiver Design - Various tidbits to improve receiver performance, covering: A.V.C., Multi-Purpose Tubes (i.e. 6Q7, etc.), R-F Circuit, Rectifier Tube Shields, the 6E5, and the 84.

RCA 1936 AN-57 The 6L7 as an R-F Amplifier - Using the 6L7 as an RF or IF amplifier gives improved AVC control.

RCA 1936 AN-58 Receiver Design - Various tidbits to improve receiver performance, covering: Power Output of the 6R7, Voltage Rating of Tubes, Series-Filament Operation of 2-Volt Tubes, Rectifier-Tube Sputter, and Increased Current Rating of the 6H6.

RCA 1936 AN-59 Operation of the 6Q7 - Design consideration in using the triode section of the 6Q7.

RCA 1936 AN-60 Operation of the 6L6 - Explanation of how a beam-tetrode works, plus ten different operating scenarios for the 6L6.

RCA 1936 AN-61 The Conversion of a 6L6 Plate Family to New Screen Voltage Conditions - Technique for generating plate characteristics for different screen voltages in beam tetrodes.

RCA 1936 AN-62 A New Operating Condition for Two Type 6F6 Tubes Connected as Pentodes - Optimum operating conditions for push-pull 6F6s running in class AB1. 15 Watt output achieved.

RCA 1936 AN-63 A High-Gain Single-Tube Phase Inverter - By using a floating detector, a single high-mu triode can be used to drive a push-pull output stage.

RCA 1936 AN-64 Inverse-Feedback Circuits for A-F Amplifiers - The need for speaker damping and ways to achieve it, with an emphasis on negative feedback from plate to grid.

RCA 1936 AN-65 Tuning-Indicator Circuits for the 6E5 and 6G5 - Techniques of using the 6E5 and 6G5 tuning eye tubes in a receiver. Note: the 6U5 is equivalent to the 6G5.

RCA 1936 AN-66 Equal Plate and Screen Voltage Operation of the 6L6 - Operation of the 6L6 with identical plate and screen voltages.

RCA 1937 AN-67 Resistance-Coupled Audio-Frequency Amplifiers - Detailed operating conditions and circuit values for pentodes and triodes as audio amplifiers. Seems to be the basis of the RC-coupled data seen in the RCA tube manuals.

RCA 1937 AN-68 A 55-Watt Amplifier Using Two Type 6L6 Tubes - Pushing the 6L6 to the limit - using two in a 55-Watt class AB2 amplifier.

RCA 1937 AN-69 250-Volt Low Current Operation of the 6L6 - Single-ended and push-pull use of the 6L6 at low plate voltage and current.

RCA 1937 AN-70 An Exposure Meter for Cathode-Ray Oscillographs - A simple exposure meter that compares the trace brightness with a lightbulb.

RCA 1937 AN-71 Low-Current, High-Power Operation of Two 6L6's Connected in Push-Pull - Obtaining optimum performance of push-pull 6L6s in real-life radio environments.

RCA 1937 AN-72 A 40-Watt Operating Condition for Two 6L6 Tubes - A less powerful class AB2 amplifier. Includes transformer design, power supply considerations, and performance curves.

RCA 1937 AN-73 Operation of the 25L6 in Typical Circuits - Circuits and performance curves of the 25L6 in a variety of radio circuits.

RCA 1937 AN-74 A New High-Voltage Choke-Input Rating for the 5T4 - A choke-input filter allows higher input voltage: 550Vrms.

RCA 1937 AN-75 Receiver Design - Various tidbits to improve receiver performance, covering: Eliminating blocking in battery-operated receivers, Increasing the gap in single-ended output transformers, alignment problems with converter tubes, double-diode AVC circuit, and eliminating oscillations in audio output stages.

RCA 1937 AN-76 An Audio-Frequency Curve Tracer Using a Cathode-Ray Tube - A simple but clever way to do a frequency response sweep of an amplifier.

RCA 1937 AN-77 Dimensions of Popular Tube Types - The physical dimensions of "popular tube types". The only non-octals are the 6E5 and 6G5. This list looks like the beginning of the RCA-initiated "preferred tube" list used during and after World War II.

RCA 1937 AN-78 Use of the Plate Family in Vacuum-Tube Power-Output Calculations - An interesting app note for using the graphical plate curves to calculate the performance of single-ended power amplifiers, both triode and pentode.

RCA 1937 AN-79 Significance of Ratings for Power Output Tubes - A detailed discussion of the various maximum ratings for output tubes. This description is what will be called "Design-Maximum" in AN-105, although called "Design-Center Ratings" later.

RCA 1937 AN-80 Operation of the 6V6-G - Application of the popular 6V6G in both single-ended and several different push-pull circuits.

RCA 1937 AN-81 A Two-Terminal Oscillator - An RF oscillator using two triodes that doesn't require tapped inductors or capacitors.

RCA 1938 AN-82 Wide-Angle Tuning with the 6E5, 6G5, or 6U5 - How to get almost 180° opening of the eye on eye tubes using an additional triode.

RCA 1938 AN-83 Resistance-Coupled Amplifier Data for 6L5G, 6T7G, and 6S7G - Audio amplifier data for these tubes with 0.15 amp heater current.

RCA 1938 AN-84 The Operation of Phototubes - Detailed application of phototubes, especially for sound playback purposes.

RCA 1938 AN-85 Operation of the 6AC5-G - Using two 6AC5G tubes in a class B mobile audio amplifier.

RCA 1938 AN-86 Operation of the 6Y6-G - Using the 6Y6G in single-ended and push-pull amplifiers with low B+ voltage. The 6Y6G is essentially a 6.3V version of the 50L6GT.

RCA 1938 AN-87 The 6K8 - A New Converter Tube - An improved converter that reduces the interactions between the signal and oscillator and performs better at high frequencies than the 6A8.

RCA 1938 AN-88 Hum in Heater-Type Tubes - The causes of audio hum in tube amplifiers and how to reduce it.

RCA 1938 AN-89 Receiver Design - A collection of design recommendations for receiver design: use of a pentagrid converter with separate oscillator, grid resistor value for partial self-bias operation, cathode connection of eye tubes, grounding pin 1 in octal tubes, power sensitivity of AF amplifiers in receivers, hum precaution for 6C8G, and hum modulation in AC/DC sets.

RCA 1938 AN-90 Resistance-Coupled Amplifier Data for the 6C8G 6F8G 6J5 6J5G 6Z7G - Resistance-coupled amplifier parameters for three families of triodes: 6C8G, (6F8G, 6J5), and 6Z7G.

RCA 1938 AN-91 Operation of the Gas-Triode 0A4-G - The 0A4G is a cold-cathode (no heater) tube often used in remote control circuits where the presence of an RF carrier on the power line would actuate a relay.

RCA 1938 AN-92 Operation of the Improved Type 906 Cathode-Ray Tube at Low Voltages - Due to improvements in the 906 CRT (adding a graphite coating to the inside of the tube), decent operation with a supply voltage as low as 400 volts is possible.

RCA 1938 AN-93 An Inverse-Feedback Circuit for Resistance-Coupled Amplifiers - By connecting a resistor from the plate of the output tube to the plate of the driver tube, a constant-voltage, parallel negative feedback circuit is produced. This flattens the frequency response, reduces gain variations, and improves the speaker damping factor.

RCA 1938 AN-94 Operation of the 6AF6-G - The 6AF6G is a short, dual section eye tube that allows flexibility in indicator circuits.

RCA 1938 AN-95 Operating Positions of Receiving Tubes - Directly heated tubes have to be mounted vertically or horizontally such that if the filament sags, it doesn't hit the control grid. This chart summarizes the permissible mounting positions.

RCA 1938 AN-96 A Voltage Regulator for D-C Power Supplies - A voltage regulator using either a 2A3 or 45 as the pass tube.

RCA 1938 AN-97 A Self-Balancing Phase-Inverter Circuit - This is the phase splitter circuit that is sometimes called and "anode follower" or "see-saw" inverter.

RCA 1938 AN-98 The Operation of Single-Ended Tubes - A description and application of the new single-ended tubes: 6SJ7, 6SK7, 6SF5, and 6SQ7.

RCA 1938 AN-99 Revision of 6K8 Ratings - A slight tweak on the triode section's maximum ratings: (200V max, 16mA max) -> (125V max, 0.75W max).

RCA 1938 AN-100 Operation of the 6SA7 - A detailed description and application information for the 6SA7, an improved pentagrid converter.

RCA 1939 AN-101 Input Loading of Receiving Tubes at Radio Frequencies - At high RF frequencies the grid of a pentode can resitively load its tuned circuit due to electron transit time and cathode lead inductance. AVC can also cause the input capacitance to shift, detuning the circuit. This app note addresses these issues and suggests ways to minimize them.

RCA 1939 AN-102 The 6SK7 as an I-F Amplifier - Due to the increased gain of the 6SK7 compared to the 6K7, either the overall gain can be increased or the IF bandwidth performance improved.

RCA 1939 AN-103 Operation of the 35L6GT - The effect of an un-bypassed cathode resistor in the 35L6GT output stage.

RCA 1939 AN-104 A Television Bibliography and RMA Television Standards - A bibliography on television that is composed almost entirely of American sources. The 441-line RMA television spec is given.

RCA 1939 AN-105 A Change in Maximum Ratings of Receiver Tubes - The changes in maximum ratings for power tubes described in AN-79 is extended to all other receiving tubes. There is an inconsistency here, though. This rating system is called "Design-Maximum" and this is what it is called in the 1940 RC-14 tube manual, referring to RMA standard M8-210. However, in the 1948 RC-15 tube manual, referring to the same M8-210 standard, is is now called "Design-Center". The actual tube ratings remain the same. In the 1958 AN-174, the term "Design-Maximum" reappears, but is for a different rating system, about 10% higher than Design-Center. 😕

RCA 1940 AN-106 The RCA Miniature Tubes - A lengthy app note on the new 7-pin miniature battery tubes. Special emphasis is given to the 1R5 converter, since it operates differently than previous battery pentagrid converter tubes.

RCA 1940 AN-107 A Miniature-Tube Hearing-Aid Amplifier for Use with an Ear-Conduction Earpiece - A compact hearing aid using miniature tubes.

RCA 1940 AN-108 Effect of Temperature on Frequency of 6J5 Oscillator - An analysis of the causes of frequency drift in a 58 mc television local oscillator. Solution: negative temperature compensating capacitors.

RCA 1940 AN-109 Operation of 50 mA Tubes by the 117N7GT - Stringing four 50 mA battery tubes in series for the 117N7GT cathode bias.

RCA 1941 AN-110 Instantaneous Plate-Voltage Capability of RCA-6L6 - Since late 1939, the metal 6L6 was made with a "glass button" seal (as opposed to the older fernico eyelets). This allowed a peak transient plate rating of 5000 volts which is helpful when the 6L6 is used as a horizontal sweep tube. This transient spec does not show up in the datasheets.

RCA 1941 AN-111 The New High-Transconductance RF Pentode RCA-6SG7 - Description of the high-gain "medium cut-off" 6SG7 RF pentode. Anomaly noted: App note says grid #3 is connected to pin 1 (metal shell), but all later datasheets show it connected to pin 3, one of the cathode leads.

RCA 1941 AN-112 Use of the RCA-6SF7 - The use of the 6SF7 pentode/diode in receivers.

RCA 1941 AN-113 Precaution in Assembly of Receivers Employing Button-Base Tube - RCA wanted to leave the option open for the seal-off tip to be at the bottom of the miniature tubes, so sockets should leave space for this. This was never done, and virtually all post-war sockets don't allow for this.

RCA 1941 AN-114 Use of Cushioned Sockets in Small Receivers - Encouraging the use of shock-mounted sockets in portable battery receivers. RCA must have been having problems with microphonics.

RCA 1941 AN-115 A Discussion of Noise in Portable Receivers - An analysis of front-end noise in shortwave battery receivers under three conditions: no RF amplifier, untuned RF amplifier, and tuned RF amplifier.

RCA 1941 AN-116 Properties of Untuned RF Amplifier Stages - An analysis of using an un-tuned RF amplifier in both broadcast and short-wave receivers.

RCA 1941 AN-117 Design Precautions for Oscillators Employing Filament-Type Tubes - Most battery radios are powered-off by disconnecting only the A voltage (filament voltage). In low power transmitters, the plate current alone can keep the filament active, thus on these sets, both the A and B voltages need to be cut-off.

RCA 1947 AN-118 Input Admittance of Receiving Tubes - An expansion of AN-101 from 1939. Added are a detailed description of a measuring jig and analysis of the measured results.

RCA 1946 AN-119-1 A Horizontal Deflection Circuit fot the 10BP4 Kinescope - This advanced copy aliases against another AN-119, so the versions will be distinguished by "-1" and "-2" in the name. A very detailed description of an early version of the RCA-recommended flyback sweep circuit. The "Dev.-Type A-4412" must be the prototype of the 6BG6G. Note that the high-voltage supply using the 1B3GT/8016 is not present. The use of the 6AS7G as the damper is unusual. Sorry for the bad scan quality, but the original was a very faded DITTO machine copy.

RCA 1947 AN-119-2 Use of the 2E24 and 2E26 at 162 Megacycles - Application of these two transmitting tubes specifically designed for VHF use.

RCA 1947 AN-121 Use of the 6BA6 and 6BE6 in FM Receivers - Using these recently-released tubes in the front-end of a 88-108 mc. FM receiver. The 6BE6 is sub-optimal here; RCA had already announced the 6SB7Y and would later announce the 6BA7 as improved versions.

RCA 1946 AN-122-1 Operation of the 6SB7-Y - Application of the 6SB7Y high-gain pentagrid converter. For the broadcast and SW bands it is somewhat better than the 6SA7. For the FM band ... it works.

RCA 1947 AN-122-2 Compensation of Frequency Drift - Sources of frequency drift in a 6BE6 used in FM service. Solutions: don't use a phenolic socket and use a temperature-compensating capacitor.

RCA 1947 AN-123 Receiver Microphonics Caused by Heater-Cathode Capacitance Variations - Solutions to the problem of FM modulation in a pentagrid converter caused by the heater moving around inside the cathode. This is only an issue at VHF.

RCA 1947 AN-124 Suppression of Arc-Over, Corona, and High-Voltage Leakage in the 5TP4 Kinescope - 27,000 volts is a lot. Techniques to overcome problems caused by this high voltage.

RCA 1947 AN-125 Blower Requirements for RCA Forced-Air-Cooled Tubes - The engineering equations needed to design a forced-air system for cooling transmitting tubes. Detailed, with all the factors needed, plus recommended vendors. Superceded by AN-161

RCA 1948 AN-127 A Tube Complement for AC/DC AM/FM Receivers - A suggested tube line-up for an inexpensive AM/FM radio. The GE 12AT7 and 19T8 would prove better than the 12BE6, 12AL5, and 6AQ6 shown here. Includes 100 mc characteristics of the 6BJ6 pentode.

RCA 1948 AN-128 Design Precautions to Prevent Internal Arcs from Damaging Kinescopes - Avoiding the problems of internal arc-over in CRTs.

RCA 1948 AN-129 RCA Special Red Tubes for Industrial Applications - The things that make RCA's "Special Red" tubes special.

RCA 1948 AN-130 Pulse-Operated HV Power Supply for TV Receivers - A simplified version of AN-119-1, the classic flyback circuit with the 1B3GT/8016 HV rectifier included. This is essentially the circuit used in the classic KCS-630 set.

RCA 1948 AN-131 Electronic Timers Employing Thyratrons 2D21 or 2050 - Three different timing circuits using the tetrode 2D21 or 2050 thyratrons (these are essentially equivalent).

RCA 1948 AN-132 Receiver Sensitivity Measurements at High Frequencies - Measurements at VHF are different than HF, and a technique of injecting a known power instead of voltage is described.

RCA 1948 AN-133Err Improved Arrangement of Base-Pin Connections in New Miniature Tube Types - The original AN-133 is missing; this is just an erratum. The reason for the change from the 35B5/50B5 to the 35C5/50C5 pin-out is due to a safety problem found by the UL. From the Dowd-RCA archives for the 35C5: "If the 35B5 is inserted in the 12BA6 socket of an AC/DC receiver, the line voltage may be connected to the signal grid lug of the 12BA6 socket by the double grid #1 connection in the 35B5. Line voltage is then fed through the AVC line to the stator of the tuning condenser and possibly the loop antenna depending upon the circuit used. The A4551 [35C5] avoids this by having grid #1 connected to pins 2 and 5." The same situation holds for the 50C5.

RCA 1948 AN-134 Adjustment of Filament Voltage of RCA-1B3GT by Observation of Filament Temperature - The high-voltage pulsed voltage powering the filament of the 1B3GT is hard to measure. The solution is to compare the color temperature of the filament of the pulsed tube to a 1B3GT run from a DC supply.

RCA 1948 AN-135 Single-Section Filament Operation of 3S4 & 3V4 - The 3S4 and 3V4 have a center-tapped filament. Using only one side of the dual filament is explained here.

RCA 1948 AN-136 Overload Protection for the Horizontal Deflection Circuit in TV Receivers - Looks at failure modes in the horizontal sweep circuit and recommends a 1/4 Amp fuse in the plate supply to the sweep tube.

RCA 1948 AN-137 AN-137 Reduction in Peak Inverse Voltage Rating of Type 1B3-GT - The original 40,000 volts PIV rating of the 1B3GT was optimistic.

RCA 1948 AN-138 Mixer-Oscillator for FM & AM Using 6J6 or 19J6 - A circuit using one half of a 6J6/19J6 as a mixer and the other half as an oscillator. Despite the lack of RF amplifier, the performance is better than the earlier 6BA6-6BE6 circuit in AN-121. Local oscillator radiation must have been a problem, though.

RCA 1949 AN-139 Characteristics of Pentodes and Triodes in Mixer Service - Deriving mixer tube operating conditions from datasheet values for amplifiers.

RCA 1949 AN-140 Recommendations for Support and Insulation of Kinescope RCA-16AP4 - Mounting a 16" metal cone that is at 15,500 volts has to be done carefully.

RCA 1949 AN-141 Use of VHF Beam Power Amplifier RCA-5763 as Frequency Multiplier up to 175 Megacycles - The title says it all.

RCA 1950 AN-142 High-Efficiency Deflection and High-Voltage Circuits for Short Metal Kinescope RCA-16GP4 - Going from a 53° to 70° deflection angle requires more deflection energy, but an improved circuit keeps overall power consumption the same.

RCA 1950 AN-143 Use of Sharp-Cutoff Miniature RCA-6CB6 in Television Receivers - Twelve pages on the advantages and application of the 6CB6 RF/IF pentode. An appendix (extracted from Valley & Wallman Vacuum Tube Amplifiers) explains how to design a stagger-tuned IF amplifier.

RCA 1950 AN-144 Component Considerations and Centering Adjustments for Kinescope RCA-16GP4 - Tips for positioning and adjusting the deflection yoke, focus coil, centering magnets, and ion trap.

RCA 1950 AN-145 Modifying a Horizontal Blocking Oscillator to Provide Increased Driving Voltage for the Scanning Circuit - The high-efficiency sweep circuits need more grid drive. Here is how to do this.

RCA 1950 AN-146 Minimizing Pulse Voltages in Television Vertical-Deflection Amplifiers - RCA had problems with arc-over in the vertical sweep output tube (previously a triode-connected 6K6GT) when driving the 70° 16GP4, which led to the development of the 6S4. This app note collects ideas on minimizing the peak voltages.

RCA 1950 AN-147 Pencil-Type Triodes 5675 and 5876 - A previous RCA Review article described the new pencil triodes, with developmental numbers A-2352 and A-2351. This note gives the registered RMA numbers of 5675 and 5876, respectively.

RCA 1951 AN-148 Efficient Deflection and HV Circuits for 14EP4 and 17CP4 - A high- effeciency sweep circuit using a new ferrite sweep transformer and the 6BQ6GT sweep tube. The power consumed goes from about 40 watts (old design) to 27 watts.

RCA 1951 AN-149 Application of Transformer 225T1 for Wide-Angle Large-Screen Kinescopes - Another high-efficiency sweep circuit that can use either a 6BQ6GT or 6AU5GT sweep tube.

RCA 1951 AN-150 Measurement Dissipation in Plate of Horizontal-Deflection Tube - A method of calculating plate dissipation based on easily-measured parameters.

RCA 1952 AN-151 Design Considerations for Minimizing Ripple and Interference Effects in Horizontal-Deflection Circuits - Causes and treatment of ripple, ringing, and interference effects in horizontal deflection circuits.

RCA 1952 AN-152 Design and Adjustment of Kinescope Centering Magnets and Ion-Trap Magnets - Issues of centering magnets and ion-traps in CRTs with electrostatic focus.

RCA 1952 AN-153 Adjustment Procedure for Kinescope Ion-Trap Magnets - Detailed procedure for adjusting ion-trap magnets on electrostatically-focused CRTs.

RCA 1952 AN-154 Horizontal-Deflection-Output and High-Voltage Transformer RCA-230T1 for 18-Kilovolt Kinescope Operation - Another high-efficiency horizontal sweep design for the 20" and 21" tubes needing 18KV.

RCA 1952 AN-155 Use of Miniature Power Pentode RCA-6CL6 in Video Output Stages - Tips for using the 6CL6 as a video amplifier. The 6CL6 has the same characteristics as the octal 6AG7, but with lower plate dissipation ratings and lower capacitances.

RCA 1952 AN-156 Electrode-Terminal Connections for Pencil-Type UHF Triodes - The best way to connect to pencil tubes.

RCA 1953 AN-157 A Pulse Emission Test for Field Testing Hot-Cathode Gas Tubes - Using a low duty cycle pulse load to check the cathode emission of gas tubes (rectifiers or thyratrons). Superceded by AN-172.

RCA 1953 AN-158 Use of UHF Miniature Tube Sockets for UHF Television Applications - Special 7-pin sockets exist to minimize lead inductance, but they must be used carefully.

RCA 1953 AN-159 Efficient Deflection and High-Voltage Circuits for RCA-27MP4 Kinescope. - Sweep circuits for the big 27" tube. Includes both "Syncroguide" and conventional multivibrator horizontal oscillators.

RCA 1954 AN-160 Use of Point-Contact Transistors in Switching Service - The inherent negative-resistance behavior of point-contact transistors makes for some interesting logic circuits, such as a one transistor flip-flop.

RCA 1955 AN-161 Blower Requirements for RCA Forced-Air-Cooled Tubes - Supercedes AN-125. Provides a bit more detail and an expanded list of tubes than the 1947 version.

RCA 1956 AN-162 Neck-Shadow Problems in Kinescopes - Reasons for neck shadow.

RCA 1956 AN-163 Demagnetizing the RCA-21AXP22 Color Kinescope - How to make and use a degaussing coil.

RCA 1956 AN-164 Conversion Factors for Tube Characteristics - If all the tube voltages are changed by the same factor, a nomograph gives the new tube charactersistics (rp, gm, Ib, Ic2).

RCA 1956 AN-165 Use of the RCA-2N109 P-N-P Junction Transistor in Class B Audio Applications - The performance of a transformer-coupled push-pull transistor amplifier under four different biasing schemes.

RCA 1956 AN-166 Proper Degaussing of the RCA-21AXP22-A Color Kinescope - Amplification of AN-163. Recommends degaussing after re-orienting the set and mentions the possible need to touch up the purity adjustments.

RCA 1956 AN-167 Color-Purity and White-Uniformity Adjustment Procedure for the RCA-21AXP22A Color Kinescope - Detailed purity adjustments for the first 21" color tubes. Includes procedure for precise alignment using a pocket microscope.

RCA 1956 AN-168 New Tubeless Convergence Circuit for RCA-21AXP22A Color Kinescope - One small step in the process of circuit simplification of color televisions.

RCA 1956 AN-169 200-Mw-Output Battery-Operated Phonograph Amplifier Using RCA-2N109 Junction Transistors - A basic battery-operated phono amplifier.

RCA 1957 AN-170 Reduction of Snivets Interference in Television Receivers - What generates "snivet" interference and how to reduce them. Also covered in AN-199.

RCA 1957 AN-171 Anodized Al or Mica Washers for Insulated Mounting of RCA-2N301 and RCA-2N301A Transistors - How to make and use TO-3 insulators. Mica and anodized aluminum have similar thermal resistance.

RCA 1958 AN-172 A Pulse Emission Test for Field Testing Hot-Cathode Gas Tubes - Using a low duty cycle pulse load to check the cathode emission of gas tubes (rectifiers or thyratrons. Supercedes AN-157. Essentially identical, except for expanded tube listing.

RCA 1958 AN-173 High-Fidelity Audio Amplifiers Using RCA-6973 Beam Power Tubes - RCA used the mystique of "industrial numbers" to enhance its reputation for hi-fi manufacturers and users. Unlike others such as Tung-Sol (6550) and Westinghouse (7591, 8417), RCA's hi-fi tubes were copies of existing tubes with the pin-outs changed to make them "unique". Except for the pin-out, the 6973 is exactly the same as the 6CZ5. These are slightly enhanced versions of the 6V6 and its derivatives (6AQ5, 6BW6, 6CM6).

RCA 1958 AN-174 Design-Maximum System for Rating Electron Tubes - Definition of Design-Maximum rating system, compared to the old Design-Center and Absolute-Maximum systems. Includes the 30-page JETEC J5-C3 spec which shows the development of the Design-Maximum system in a variety of circuits. Important.

RCA 1959 AN-177err PPI Scan Generators for Use with Display Storage Tubes - The original app note is missing - this is just an errata and addenda.

RCA 1958 AN-178 Frequency and Power-Output Chart for RCA Transmitting Tubes - A summary of RCA's transmitting tubes, from 20 watts to 500 Kw.

RCA 1959 AN-179 Quick-Selection Chart for Rectifier Tubes and Circuits - A summary of RCA's mercury-vapor power rectifiers and typical circuits.

RCA 1959 AN-180 Use of RCA Power Pentodes 6EH5, 12EH5, 25EH5 and 50EH5 in Low-Cost Audio Amplifiers - The 50EH5 family of small output tubes had considerably higher transconductance than the 50C5 family it replaced (14,600 µmhos vs 7500 µmhos), which gave more design freedom at the expense of higher distortion. The fact that these tubes are power pentodes, not beam tetrodes, can be seen by the high screen current to plate current ratio.

RCA 1959 AN-181 Transistor Dissipation Ratings for Pulse and Switching Service - Estimating collector dissipation in switching circuits based on duty cycle and thermal time constant.

RCA 1959 AN-182 Use of the 6EM5 in Vertical-Deflection Circuits of 110° Systems - Details on using the 6EM5 in demanding vertical sweep circuits.

RCA 1959 AN-183 Applications of the RCA-7199 Triode-Pentode in High-Fidelity Audio Equipment - This TV-tuner-derived tube is a really lousy audio tube. Half the app note explains how to deal with the notoriously wide spread in characteristics. Personal experience has shown the 7199 to have a short lifetime. There was a whole industry of companies making replacement PC boards to drop into the Dynaco Stereo-70 to eliminate the 7199.

RCA 1959 AN-184 Recommended Handling Procedures for All-Glass Picture Tubes - How to avoid implosions. Note the dropping of the term "kinescope".

RCA 1960 AN-186 Use of the RCA-7558 and RCA-7551 VHF Beam Power Tubes in RF-Amplifier, Frequency-Multiplier, and AF-Modulator Service - The title says it all.

RCA 1960 AN-187 Photometry as Applied to Camera and Cathode-Ray-Tube Applications - Definitions and measurements of camera, CRT, and scene lighting.

RCA 1960 AN-188 Comparison of Picture-Tube Performance in Grid-Drive and Cathode-Drive Service - Cathode drive is more sensitive but has more defocussing than grid drive.

RCA 1960 AN-189 New 100-Ma Tubes for 120V Series-Heater-String Home Radio Receivers - Replacing the "All-American Five" tubes with the new 100 mA tubes. Also a low-cost four-tube radio.

RCA 1960 AN-190 AC-DC Stereo Amplifiers Using Output Tubes Having 100 mA Heaters - Three different low-cost amplifiers using the new 100 mA tubes.

RCA 1961 AN-191 RCA 6CW4 and 2CW4 Nuvistor Triodes as RF Amplifiers - Improvement in RF performance in TV tuners using Nuvistors. With Errata.

RCA 1961 AN-192 Use of the 6939 UHF Twin Power Pentode in RF-Amplifier and Frequency-Tripler Service - Application of the 6939.

RCA 1961 AN-193 Use of the 7587 Industrial Tetrode - Benefits of the Nuvistor tetrode.

RCA 1963 AN-195 Noise and Gain of the 8056 Nuvistor Triode at 200 Mc - A low-voltage Nuvistor RF amplifier.

RCA 1963 AN-196 Temperature Ratings and Thermal Considerations for Nuvistor Tubes - How to keep your Nuvistors cool.

RCA 1963 AN-197 New High-Gain Tubes for IF-Amplifier and Limiter Stages of FM Tuners - The 6HR6 and 6HS6. These were the only high-performance RF/IF pentodes that had the same pin-out as the 6AU6/6BA6. Unfortunately, they came late in the game and are now very scarce.

RCA 1963 AN-199 Snivets - "Snivets" or Barkausen oscillations in TV sweep tubes and how to reduce them. Previously covered in AN-170.

RCA 1963 AN-200 Techniques for Measuring Electron-Tube Bulb Temperatures - A simple way of measuring bulb temperature.

RCA 1964 AN-201 Application Considerations for RCA 3N98 and 3N99 Silicon MOS Transistors - RCA was an early player in MOS devices. They later developed the RF dual-gate MOSFET and COS/MOS (CMOS) analog and digital integrated circuits. The 3N98 and 3N99 were their first commercial MOS devices.

RCA 1965 AN-203 New Molded-Plastic Frames for Coincident-Current Magnetic Memory Stacks Utilizing 20- and 30-Mil Cores - RCA was making computers at this time, and this was part of the infrastructure.

RCA 1966 AN-204 Operation of Memory-Core-Driver Transistors in the Primary-Voltage-Breakdown Region - It is OK to drive transistors into the breakdown region when driving core memory.

RCA 1966 AN-3184 Application Considerations for RCA Separate-Mesh Vidicons - Separate-mesh vidicons permit higher resolution and output uniformity when used with higher voltages than earlier tubes.

RCA 1966 AN-3193 Application Considerations for the RCA 3N128 VHF MOS Field-Effect Transistor - Application of the 3N128 MOSFET, RCA's first RF MOSFET.

RCA 1967 AN-3341 VHF Mixer Design using the RCA-3N128 MOS Transistor - Design of and behavior of single-gate MOSFETs used as an RF mixer.

RCA 1967 AN-3435 Cross-Modulation Effects in Single-Gate and Dual-Gate MOS Field-Effect Transistors - The analytic and experimental evaluation of intermodulation/cross-modulation effects in RF MOSFETs.

RCA 1967 AN-3452 Chopper Circuits Using RCA MOS Field-Effect Transistors - Using single-gate MOSFETs as choppers, as used in low-level DC-to-AC converters for opamps.

RCA 1967 AN-3453 An FM Tuner Using an RCA-40468 MOS-Transistor RF Amplifier - Only one MOSFET is used - as the RF amplifier. The rest is all bipolar.

RCA 1970 AN-4018 Design of Gate-Protected MOS Field-Effect Transistors - The technical issues of adding ESD protection diodes to dual-gate MOSFETs.

RCA 1971 AN-4206 Instructions for the Installation and Operation of RCA UHF-TV Klystrons - The installation and alignment of the large klystrons used in UHF television transmitters. Scanned from a copy.

RCA 1970 AN-4431 RF Applications of the Dual-Gate MOS FET up to 500MHz - Application of the 3N200 second-generation dual-gate MOSFET at UHF frequencies.

RCA 1973 AN-4623 Application of RCA Silicon Diode Array Target Vidicons - The silicon diode array target, also called the SIT (Silicon-Intensifier Target) vidicon could replace conventional vidicons with only slight modifications. Also see app note AN-4907.

RCA 1970 AN-4266 Use of the RCA-4652/8042 in Mobile Equipment - The 4652 and 8042 (both quick-heating versions of the 6146) are usually listed as equivalent. This one-page app note explains some subtle differences. The 8042 was developed by Philips and registered in America by Amperex.

RCA 1971 AN-4277 Description and Application of NUMITRON Devices - The NUMITRON used incandescent wires to implement a seven-segment numerical display.

RCA 1972 AN-4872 Broadcast-Tube Handling and Installation Instructions - How to install the large metal-ceramic air-cooled transmitting tubes.

RCA 1973 AN-4881 Blanking in the Operation of a Camera Tube - A short note on the techniques of retrace blanking in camera tubes.

RCA 1972 AN-4884 Time Characteristics of Photomultipliers - Some General Observations - High-speed behavior of photomultiplier tubes under different conditions.

RCA 1972 AN-4890 Printed-Circuit Board Soldering Techniques for RCA Infrared Emitting Diodes - Special care is needed when soldering IR-emitting diodes directly to PC boards.

RCA 1973 AN-4906 Upgrading an Intensifier-Vidicon Camera to SIT-Tube Operation - The SIT (Silicon-Intensifier Target) vidicon had better resolution and ten times the sensitivity of previous intensifier-vidicon tubes.

RCA 1973 AN-4907 General Information and Applications Guide for RCA 3-Inch Image Isocons - The Image Isocon was derived from the image orthicon. By detecting and amplifying only the scattered electrons, the dark noise was reduced and sensitivity increased.

RCA 1973 AN-4920 Enhancing the Visibility of the NUMITRON Dispaly in Sunlight - Techniques to get the best contrast when using NUMITRONs in sunlight.

RCA 1973 AN-4973 Image Orthicons Camera Tubes-Operating Techniques and Economies - An overview of image-orthicon camera tubes and how to use them for the best economy.

RCA 1973 AN-4974 Modiying TV Cameras for Use of Silicon Target Vidicons - The silicon-target vidicon is much more sensitive than earlier vidicons, but has a few quirks. This app note explains how to use them.

RCA 1975 AN-5012 Vidicon Camera Tubes in TV Film Camera Service - A detailed analysis of the use of vidicons in film-pickup service, and how to upgrade to the best one for the job.

RCA 1972 AN-6026 Application Considerations for Hybrid Series Voltage Regulators - Detailed circuit description and application information for the RCA HC-4000 series of hybrid voltage regulators.

RCA 1981 AN-6994 The RCA Ultricon - An Improved Vidicon Camera Tube for General Closed-Circuit Television Applications - The Ultricon is an improved version of the silicon-diode target vidicon. Set-up and operating procedures are given.

RCA 1981 AN-6995 The RCA SATICON Vidicon in Diagnostic Medical X-Ray Applications - The SATICON photoconductor has three layers of selenium, arsenic, and tellurium, resulting in more sensitvity and better resolution than previous vidicons. Instructions for upgrading medical imaging equipment is given here.

RCA 1970 ICAN-6498 Using the CD4018 Divide-by-N Counter - Design of fixed and programmable counters using the RCA CD4018 COS/MOS presettable divide-by-"N" counter.